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วันศุกร์ที่ 28 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2552

Vitamins and minerals on the prevention of lameness in ruminants and non - ruminants

-Laminitis and the diseases associated with laminitis are among the most common causes of lameness in dairy cattle.

- Sudden changes in nutrition ,particularly sudden increases in rapidly fermented carbohydrate

- Which causes secondary lesions of the sole horn such as sole ulcer ,sole hemorrhages ,white line ,double sole

- Deficiency vitamin and mineral


Required Nutrients for Keratinization

-The amino acids Cys ,His and Met play key roles in establishing the structural integrity of the keratinocyte

- Reported that the formation of disulfide bonds between Cys residues was an integral step in the final stage of keratinization.

- Calcium is needed for activation of epidermal transglutaminase (TG)

-Reported that the favored pentapeptide sequence Cys-Gln-Pro-(Ser, Thr)-Cys was identified in the α-helix chain of hard mammalian keratins.

-Role of Zn in differentiating cells including differentiating keratinocytes, is regulatory.

-Zinc regulates calmodulin, protein kinase C, thyroid hormone binding, and inositol phosphate synthesis

-Copper greatest importance in the keratinizing horn cell is the activity of thiol oxidase

- which is active in cross-linkage of the cell envelope keratin fibers

-Zinc role in 3 key functions

- Catalytic roles are found in enzymes such as RNA nucleotide transferases ,RNA polymerase ,alkaline phosphatase ,carboxypeptidase ,alcohol dehydrogenase, and the carbonic anhydrases

- Zinc also plays a key role in the formation of the structural proteins during the keratinization process.

-Zn-finger proteins are thought to have the following general structure : -C-X2-C-Xn-C-X2-C- , where C designates Cys and X designates other amino acid


-Copper activates thiol oxidase enzyme ,which is responsible for formation of the disulfide bonds between Cys residues of keratin filaments

- Manganese plays an indirect role in the keratinization process.

- Manganese is needed for activation of galactotransferase and glycosyltransferase enzymes ,which are needed for the synthesis of chondroitin-sulfate side chains of proteoglycan

- Proteoglycans are essential building blocks in the formation of normal cartilage and bone

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