Cages—A breeder cage designed for a colony size of greater than 100 birds will usually have better fertility than those with smaller colony size. Smaller breeder cages with only one or two roosters are subject to accelerated fertility loss as the flock ages. Breeder laying cages should provide 700 cmฒ (276 inฒ) of floor space per bird. The height of the laying cage must be at least 60 cm (23.6 in) to avoid the roosters from hitting their heads on the top of the cage. Roosters striking their heads on the top of the cage will be reluctant to mate. Roosters in cage systems should be dubbed to avoid being caught in cage wires.
Caution—Growing breeders in cages and then transferring them to a floor production system is not advisable. Breeders handled in this way can experience behavior problems (displaced pecking behavior) as adults.