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Exchange the experience, Feed formula , Requirement nutient of pig, Laying ,Boiler, farm Management


วันศุกร์ที่ 28 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2552

Deficiency and Toxicity of Riboflavin (B2)


• May result in itching and burning eyes; cracks and sores in the mouth & lips; bloodshot eyes; purplish tongue; dermatitis; retarded growth; digestive disturbances; trembling; sluggishness; oily skin.
• Deficiency of the vitamin can occur in the elderly subsisting on tea or coffee, toast and cookies.
• Riboflavin deficiency also occurs in those with chronic liver disease, chronic alcoholics and those who receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with inadequate riboflavin.
• Marginal riboflavin deficiency, in the context of nucleoside analog antiretroviral therapy, has been known to cause severe lactic acidosis.


There is no known toxicity to riboflavin. Because riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, excess amounts are easily excreted by the body in the urine.



• Riboflavin composed of Isoalloxazine ring connected with ribityl side chain.


• it supports energy production by aiding in the metabolizing of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Vitamin B2 is also required for red blood cell formation and respiration, antibody production, and for regulating human growth and reproduction. It is essential for healthy skin, nails, hair growth and general good health, including regulating thyroid activity.
• Riboflavin is needed for energy metabolism, building tissue, and helps maintain good vision.


• Riboflavin is found in dairy products, lean meats, poultry, fish, grains, broccoli, turnip greens, asparagus, spinach, and enriched food products.
• Good sources of Vitamin B2 are in liver, milk and white of egg, though it occurs widely in nature

Metabolism of Niacin

  • Like other B vitamins niacin is essential for the manufacture of enzymes that provide cells with energy through tissue respiration and carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
  • Niacin is involved in over 50 enzyme reactions and is essential for healthy skin, tongue and digestive tract tissues and the formation of red blood cells.

Deficiency of Niacin

  • Factors that may increase vitamin B3 niacin deficiency include alcohol consumption, caffeine, refined sugar, low protein intake, liver disease, glaucoma, diabetes, or peptic ulcers. Deficiency of vitamin B3 niacin can lead to fatigue, muscular weakness, loss of appetite, low blood sugar, dizziness, headaches, insomnia, canker sores, skin inflammation and eruptions.
  • Long term niacin deficiency typically leads to pellagra, the common term for niacin deficiency disease. Pellagra starts with sunburn-like eruptions on the skin where exposed to sunlight, later symptoms being swollen red tongue, diarrhea, mental confusion / dementia, irritability and depression.

    Toxicity of Niacin
  • Flushing.
  • Skin disorders. Itching, rashes, pruritus, dry skin, increased pigmentation
  • GI distress.
  • GU distress. increased urinary frequency, dysuria.
  • Hyperuricemia may precipitate gout.
  • Hepatic and pancreatic disturbances with high doses.

Function of Niacin

1. The major function of niacin is in the coenzyme forms of nicotinamide, NAD and NADP

2. Enzyme containing NAD and NADP are important links in a series of reactions associated with carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism, especially energy metabolism

3. More than 40 biochemical reactions have been identified that have paramount importance, particularly for the:
-Gastrointestinal tract
-Nervous system

4. NAD and NADP – containing enzymes play key roles in oxidation-reduction reactions by serving as hydrogen transfer agents in conjunction with a second hydrogen-carrying system, the riboflavin coenzymes
-The transfer of hydrogen is reversible and sterospecific
-NADP has an important role in the synthesis of fats and steroids
-Both NAD and NADP are involved in degradation and synthesis of amino acids



Niacin is widely distributed in plant and animal foods, mainly as the pyridine nucleotides NAD and NADP. Good sources are yeast, meats including liver, cereals, legumes, seeds, milk, green leafy vegetables, and fish

Absorption of Niacin

1. Niacin is absorbed in the small intestine. As it is water soluble, excess is excreted in the urine although small amounts may be stored in the liver.

2. The amino acid tryptophan is converted to niacin in the body if sufficient thiamin, riboflavin and B6 are present. More than half the RDA for niacin can be obtained through the conversion of tryptophan.

Transportation of Niacin

1. Unbound acid and amine
2. Passive diffusion and facilitated diffusion
3. Energy-dependent transport system(brain)
4. Change NAD(H) and NADP(H)

Function of Pyridoxine

Function of Pyridoxine

In the body, pyridoxine is normally stored as pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP), the coenzyme form of the vitamin. It is needed for:
Metabolism of amino acids
Cellular metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat.
Formation of neurotransmitters .
Production of nicotinic acid (vitamin B3).

Metabolism of Pyridoxine

PL - pyridoxal PN - pyridoxine PM - pyridoxamine -O feedback inhibition B2 – riboflavin
PMP - pyridoxamine 4-PA - pyridoxic acid PLP - pyridoxal 5-phosphate PNP - pyridoxine 5-phosphate 5-phosphate RBC - red blood cell -

Deficiency and toxicity of Pyridoxine

Factors that may increase vitamin B6 pyridoxine deficiency include alcohol consumption, high protein diets, and antidepressants. Deficiency of vitamin B6 pyridoxine can lead to muscular weakness, anemia, acne, dermatitis and eczema, allergies and asthma, nervousness, irritability and sleep disturbances. Other symptoms can be swollen tongue, ridged nails, arthritis, osteoporosis, and kidney stones.



In food, Vitamin B6 is usually bound to protein, pyridoxol being the prominent form in plants, and pyridoxal and pyridoxamine in animal products. Major dietary sources of pyridoxine include:
Yeast Extract
Fish, particularly:
§ Tuna
§ Trout
§ Herring
§ Halibut
§ Salmon
Whole grains
Very few fruit and vegetables:

Absorption and Transportation of Pyridoxine

The three forms of vitamin B6 are absorbed in the jejunum by a process that is non-saturable. PN is found in foods in the free form and as the glycoside which is absorbed directly or after hydrolysis by lumenal enzymes and/or microflora.

§ PL and PM require hydrolysis before absorption. All three forms are subsequently trapped by phosphorylation. Experiments in the rat suggest that PLP (pyridoxal phosphate) utilization might be affected by agents that raise gastric pH. Disorders of the small intestine, such as celiac disease reduce vitamin B6 status but there is little good evidence that alcohol reduces B6 absorption.



For ruminants depends on the co availability of other factors needed for microbial protein synthesis

Sulfur is found in
–meteorites and native in proximity
–to hot springs and volcanoes.
–It is found in many minerals, including galena, iron pyrite, ......
–Sulfur also occurs in petroleum crude oil and natural gas.


Absorption of organic sulfate from the GI tract is inefficient. Active transport of SO42- takes place from the upper small intestine

Non ruminant requirement

In non ruminants, sulfur, at least for the most part, should be in the form of sulfur-containing protein that as amino acid there are methionine, cystine and cysteine (usually 0.6 – 0.8% of the protein)

Can not synthesis of other organic forms of S in the absence of inorganic S.


The toxicity of S is determined, to a large extent, by the enzyme systems of the exposed animal, and by whether the animal has capacity to form H2S from the inorganic sulphate sources presented (NRC, 1980).

Required Nutrients for Keratinization

-Vitamins A and E are also play an integral role indeveloping the structure and quality of keratinized horn tissue.

-One of the most important biological regulators of calcium metabolism is vitamin D

-Biotin is essential for the formation and integrity of the keratinized tissues.

-There are 4 biotin-containing enzymes found in mammalian

- Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ,B-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and pyruvate carboxylase.

Vitamins and minerals on the prevention of lameness in ruminants and non - ruminants

-Laminitis and the diseases associated with laminitis are among the most common causes of lameness in dairy cattle.

- Sudden changes in nutrition ,particularly sudden increases in rapidly fermented carbohydrate

- Which causes secondary lesions of the sole horn such as sole ulcer ,sole hemorrhages ,white line ,double sole

- Deficiency vitamin and mineral

Required Nutrients for Keratinization

-The amino acids Cys ,His and Met play key roles in establishing the structural integrity of the keratinocyte

- Reported that the formation of disulfide bonds between Cys residues was an integral step in the final stage of keratinization.

- Calcium is needed for activation of epidermal transglutaminase (TG)

-Reported that the favored pentapeptide sequence Cys-Gln-Pro-(Ser, Thr)-Cys was identified in the α-helix chain of hard mammalian keratins.

-Role of Zn in differentiating cells including differentiating keratinocytes, is regulatory.

-Zinc regulates calmodulin, protein kinase C, thyroid hormone binding, and inositol phosphate synthesis

-Copper greatest importance in the keratinizing horn cell is the activity of thiol oxidase

- which is active in cross-linkage of the cell envelope keratin fibers

-Zinc role in 3 key functions

- Catalytic roles are found in enzymes such as RNA nucleotide transferases ,RNA polymerase ,alkaline phosphatase ,carboxypeptidase ,alcohol dehydrogenase, and the carbonic anhydrases

- Zinc also plays a key role in the formation of the structural proteins during the keratinization process.

-Zn-finger proteins are thought to have the following general structure : -C-X2-C-Xn-C-X2-C- , where C designates Cys and X designates other amino acid

-Copper activates thiol oxidase enzyme ,which is responsible for formation of the disulfide bonds between Cys residues of keratin filaments

- Manganese plays an indirect role in the keratinization process.

- Manganese is needed for activation of galactotransferase and glycosyltransferase enzymes ,which are needed for the synthesis of chondroitin-sulfate side chains of proteoglycan

- Proteoglycans are essential building blocks in the formation of normal cartilage and bone


Chromium is a transition element that occers most commonly in oxidation states of 0, 2+, 3+, and 6+. Most stable valence is the trivalent state. Poor absorption

Sources of Chromium

2.Whole-grain products
5.Milk very low

Absorption and Transportation

1.With trivalent Cr as the active ingredient of the GTF stetes.
2.When Cr exists in an organically bound form,it is absorped better.


1.chromium appears to be an essential trace element because it potentiates insulin action
2. increased HDL cholesteral, (hight density lipoprotein).
3.decreased serum cholesteral.

Deficiency and toxicity

1.Supplementation Cr can significanty enhance the rate of recovery form malnutrition is complicated by Cr deficiency
2.Chick were fed 2000 ppm resulted in reduced growth. (NRC,1980)

Deficiency and toxicity of Zinc

Deficiency of Zinc

1.In swine is the skin disordor parakertosis.

2. In poulty lowers the rate of growth.
-zinc deficiency can cause retarded development and effet the color of comb.
- the embryo had no lower skeleton or limbs.

Toxicity of Zinc
1. Pig,poultry, sheep, and cattle hibitconsiderable tolerance high intake.(1000ppm),(NRC,1980)

2. mortality was high (4000 pmm)

3. Broilers and laying hens show a tolerance to Zn similar to that of pigs at 1200-1400 ppm of the diet and similar growth and appetite depression.



Zinc is a divalent cation,with an atomic number of 30 and atomic weight of 65.37 and is found in ores principally sulfide (ZnS)


1.Meats and some seafoods are rich sources of Zn.
2.Soybean meal
3.whole cereal grains


1.small intestine of monogastrinc and proventriculus of chicken.
2. Zn absorption involves the transfer of Zn from the lumen of intestine into the mucosal cell.


1.About two thirds of plasma Zn in loosely bound to albumin.
2.most of the remainder in tightly bound to α-2 macroglobulin.


3.Growth rate
4.Skin and wound healing
5.Immune response
6.water and cation balance
7.Relationship to vitamin A
8.Behavior and learning ability
9.Additional function

วันอังคารที่ 25 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2552

Recession spurs

Like so many others in Michigan, Art Francisco is struggling in these difficult economic times. About a year and a half ago, he lost his job at Chrysler.
Now his part-time career - officiating high school and youth sports - takes up most of his time.
"As soon as I got laid off, I started calling assigners," said the 54-year-old Francisco, who lives in Macomb Township near Detroit.
document.write(insertImage('', '830417.jpg', 0, 350, 220, 1, 'Official Art Francisco signals an incomplete pass while working a high school football scrimmage.', '', 1251211560000, 'RefsInStory', 1185, 'Align=Right'));
Official Art Francisco signals an incomplete pass while working a high school football scrimmage.Administrators around the country are reporting an increase in the number of people interested in officiating, especially in areas hit hard by the recession. The job typically won't make ends meet but it can help: A particularly active referee can earn more than $10,000 in a year.
Barry Mano, president of the National Association of Sports Officials, has long noticed an inverse relationship between the economy and sports officiating. When more people have free time and are looking for work, it's easier to find officials.
"In a down economy, a certain number of officials who work only one sport normally start working two or three sports," Mano said. "They morph from being a basketball referee to also take up football or soccer or some other sport so they can keep that stream of earnings coming in."
High school sports organizations in the Rust Belt are reporting a significant uptick. Michigan had just over 13,000 officials last school year, up 1,000 from five years previous. The situation is similar in Ohio and Pennsylvania.
Hank Zaborniak of the Ohio High School Athletic Association says it's easy to tell which parts of the state are struggling economically. Those are the places with plenty of officials.
"When the steel mills closed down in Youngstown and the manufacturing drops off, we'll see a spike," Zaborniak said. "We'll see more folks from that area of the state enter officiating, and often times it's because of the additional income, just to help offset what they might have lost."
There's some evidence of that in California, too. Jim Jorgensen, who directs a group that assigns officials in the Sacramento area, said more than twice as many new officiating hopefuls than usual showed up for a recent football meeting.
The flip side of the phenomenon is true, too. In North Dakota, where unemployment rates have been among the country's lowest, there has been concern that not enough officials would be available for the upcoming academic year. In Arkansas, the unemployment rate has consistently been about two percentage points lower than the national average, and there doesn't appear to be a major influx of referee hopefuls.
Mike Whaley of the Oklahoma Secondary Schools Activities Association has a message for people in sports officiating classes offered by local colleges: "This is a great part-time job."
Obviously, being a referee allows someone to get back on the field or gym floor, and gives them a chance to help develop sportsmanship among young athletes. But officials also need thick skin, and they better be in reasonably good shape if they want to work enough games to earn significant money.
Francisco, who officiates softball, football and basketball, remembers heading to an AAU basketball tournament and officiating 10 straight games on a Friday night. He expects to work six days a week this coming season.
"You wind up almost using it to make a living, you know?" the longtime auto worker said.
Francisco said a football referee could conceivably make $1,000 in a week, but that stamina-testing schedule would include junior varsity games, middle school games and plenty of youth football on the weekends.
It's not much different in Ohio. Zaborniak said a ref might make $12,000 to $14,000 a year "if you work three sports and you work as often as you might be asked to work."
The good news is there are plenty of events. Bob Lombardi of the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association said a growing sport like lacrosse can provide more opportunities for officials.
"I don't think sports officiating, starting out, would ever replace someone's income," Lombardi said. "But I think it would be a nice secondary income."
Zaborniak agreed. "The officiating business - it's not a good activity for someone who's just doing it to earn income," he said. "It's got to be something where you want to be involved in the development of young people and that sort of thing."
As more people ask him how they can start officiating, Francisco has become a bit of a mentor to his less-experienced colleagues.
"A lot of guys are looking out for each other," he said. "Especially if we're all laid off."

School Ranking

The RivalsHigh 100 is compiled with the help of the network of high school site publishers, recruiting analysts and AMP team. To view the high school site in your area click here.
Each Monday throughout the high school football season, will release the RivalsHigh 100. Click here to post a question for Dallas Jackson, and he will make sure to answer your questions about our rankings.
Grayson gets it done in Week Zero
The first week of the high school football season is in the books, and a few teams in our preseason RivalsHigh 100 were in action - and held their own.
The biggest win of the week was for the No. 5 Loganville (Ga.) Grayson Rams, who defeated then-No. 38 Kingsland (Ga.) Camden Country, 14-10.
The Rams were able to rally from a 10-7 deficit, and they sent a message to the rest of Georgia - and the country - that they are for real.

Vitamin C and Folic Acid Supplementation Ameliorates the Detrimental Effects of Heat Stress in Japanese Quail

-Studies have shown that antioxidant nutrient supplementation, especial vitamins C, E and A, zinc and chromium, can be used to attenuate the negative effects of environmental stress.

-Previous reports have revealed a beneficial effect of vitamin C supplementation on growth rate, egg production, egg shell strength and thickness in stressed laying hens and broiler.

-Folic acid supplementation may also be useful for poultry under high stress condition.

-In addition,folic acid deficiency reduces serum tocopherol concentration and impairs homocysteine catabolism by decreasing cystathionine synthesis and inhibiting homocysteine remethylation.

-Folic acid is required in the methylation of homocysteine to form methionine and in the biosynthesis of amino acids and deoxynucleotides needed for DNA replication and repair.

-High homocysteine levels have also been associated with increased oxidative stress.

-Vitamin C appears to have a role on the utilization and perhaps absorption of folic acid.

-Combinations of antioxidant vitamins and minerals generally show greater antioxidant activity than that of each compound alone .

Betaine and Response to High Temperature Stress in Male Broiler Chickens

- Betaine or glycine is widely found in nature
Synthesized by a variety of plants and organisms.

- There is a growing interest in using betaine as a
feed additive in the diets of poultry.

-Betaine has also been shown to protect cell from
osmotic stress and allowed them to continue
that would normally inactivate the cell.

-During heat stress the cell of bird are subjected
to osmotic sterss.

- In such instance water is pulled out of the cell
because of a higher concentration of salts or
solutes outside the cells.

- This loss of water can cause the cells to shrink in volume and if this water loss is not correcte the cell will eventually die.

-Although poultry do not have a specific requirment for betaine the osmolytic property
of betaine be beneficial to heat stress birds.

vitamin E and selenium on Japanese quails

-- Selenium Se is also known as an highly effective antioxidant and essential trace mineral in animal organisms.

-- Role of Se in animals is its function presence in the active site of the selenoenzyme (glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px)

-This enzyme, together with superoxide dismutase and catalase, protects cells against damage caused by free radicals and lipoperoxide


Calcium be the mineral that is significant in animal body , in big animal with full speed ahead have 3.5 4.0 % calciums s of dry weight of the all tissue or think 26 - 30 % calcium accumulation in the body. Which pertaining to the weight of animal. But when big animal with full speed already ahead accumulation rate of the calcium is down for splitting of the calcium in animal body meet that 99% stay in the bone in a picture of hydroxyappatite crystals. Calcium accumulation is will born the accumulation quickly the earliest stage of the progress, the bone is a place of the calcium that collects in the body. Can apply in way body science procedure such as milk production building structure, building eggshell, and use in the preservation equilibriums in the body. At bone skin has the procedure exchanges the calcium all the time the calcium that have the shuffle can distribute to is the part that exchanges the calcium all the time. The calcium that have slowly shuffle by first part has will the proportion that is down when, old animal more and more the calcium that meet in majority blood is in serum about 10 - 12 mg/g the part in the erythrocyte meets 0.14 - 0.22 mg/g a little in serum the calcium distributes to are the part at can seep to change have about 65 % the part again 35% s are the part at can seep can change, and in the part that can change very in a picture , ca2+ , the remainder is catching with the carbonate, phosphate.

วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 20 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2552

Vaccination and Infectious Bursal Disease in Laying Hen

Certain diseases are too widespread or difficult to eradicate and require a routine vaccination program. In general, all layer flocks should be vaccinated against Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and Avian Encephalomyelitis (AE). The exact vaccination schedule depends upon many things such as diseases exposures expected, maternal immunities, vaccine types available and routes of administration preferred. Therefore, no one program can be recommended for all locations. Consult with local veterinarians to determine the best vaccination program for your area. Following is a basic program where breeders received an inactivated Newcastle-Bronchitis-IBD vaccine.

Infectious Bursal Disease
Special attention should be paid to IBD control. This disease can have many subtle effects which are detrimental to pullet health. The primary feature of IBD is immuno-supression caused by damage to the bursa of Fabricius which leaves the bird unable to fend off other disease challenges. Secondary diseases such as gangrenous dermatitis, bacterial arthritis, peritonitis, and even Marek’s often result. Virtually all flocks are exposed to IBD and therefore, should be protected by vaccination. Most breeding stock receives a killed IBD vaccine to boost maternal titers in the chicks. Research at Hy-Line International has shown the

Cage And Caution of Laying Hen

Cages—A breeder cage designed for a colony size of greater than 100 birds will usually have better fertility than those with smaller colony size. Smaller breeder cages with only one or two roosters are subject to accelerated fertility loss as the flock ages. Breeder laying cages should provide 700 cmฒ (276 inฒ) of floor space per bird. The height of the laying cage must be at least 60 cm (23.6 in) to avoid the roosters from hitting their heads on the top of the cage. Roosters striking their heads on the top of the cage will be reluctant to mate. Roosters in cage systems should be dubbed to avoid being caught in cage wires.

Caution—Growing breeders in cages and then transferring them to a floor production system is not advisable. Breeders handled in this way can experience behavior problems (displaced pecking behavior) as adults.

Moving and Selection of Laying

Moving—The flock can be moved into the laying facility at 15-16 weeks of age or after administration of the last live vaccinations. W-36 and Hy-Line Brown males may be moved a few days earlier to the laying house to give them more time to acclimate to their new environment before the arrival of females. This is not recommended for the W-98 and Silver Brown males. It is important that growing and production breeder cages be compatible in feeder, drinker and lighting systems.

Selections—During the transfer of males, a selection for the best individuals should be made. All roosters entering the laying house should be in good body condition, well-feathered, with good feet and legs and free of physical defects. Keep extra males in reserve cages to use later. Any sex slips should be removed at transfer. Supportive care to reduce stress such as water-soluble vitamins, probiotics, and vitamin C should be used three days before and three days after the transfer. Flocks transferred early should be moved into a laying house with the same light hours and light intensity as those in the growing house.

Cage Systems Management of Laying

Growing Period

Preparations—Place paper on the cage floor during the brooding period. This will allow supplemental feeding on cage paper to quickly get chicks eating. Place feed on the cage paper in front of the permanent feeder to train chicks to move towards the feeders. Remove paper by 14 days of age to avoid build up of feces that could lead to IBD (Gumboro) or coccidia infections. Water lines should be flushed prior to arrival of the chicks to remove residual disinfectant and warm the drinking water. Drinking water temperature should be 25 to 30 C (77 to 86 F) for the first week. Adjusting water system pressure in nipple drinkers to create a hanging drop will help chicks find water. Cup drinkers should be manually filled during the first three days to train chicks to drink. The W-36 male can be smaller and less developed than the female. Special supportive care for these males include higher brooding temperatures, reduced bird density, vitamins and electrolytes in drinking water and enriched feed. To avoid leg problems, the rearing cage should be constructed with wire that is at least 2 mm (0.08 in) in diameter with spacing between wires to provide a maximum cell size of 18 mm x 18 mm (0.71 in ื 0.71 in). The floor of the cages should not be slippery or sloped. The height of the cage should be a minimum of 40 cm (15.75 in). If too low the roosters can experience problems with legs and pressure sores on the keel bone.

Lighting—During the first week, chicks should be provided with 20-22 hours of light with bright lights (20-30 lux, 2-3 foot-candles) to help chicks find water and feed. Alternatively, an intermittent lighting program (4 hours of light followed by 2 hours of dark) can be used for the first week.

Socialization—Males and females should be grown together to allow socialization. This can avoid mating problems that can occur as adults. Ideally, the males and females should be co-mingled by 4

Training Preiod

Training Period—Train the pullets to use the nests by frequent walks through the house in the mornings for the first eight weeks after the birds are placed in the laying house. Use of electric deterrent wires on the slats around the house perimeter will help discourage egg laying in corners or near the walls. Electric deterrent wires must be turned on as soon as the birds are housed. Place the electric deterrent wires 5 cm (2 in) away from the wall or the house and about 10 cm (4 in) above the floor. An electric wire over water and feed lines increase nervousness among the birds and should be avoided. Use of solid perches above water and feed lines are preferred.

Lighting System, House Layout and Nests for Laying Period

Lighting—Check the lighting program and light intensity. Ensure that light intensity in lay house is brighter than grow. Synchronize light times with the growing house. It is important not to have shadows in the lay house, as dark areas outside the nest will encourage floor eggs. Allow the pullets access to the nests during the day when they arrive. Place the pullets on the slats at housing. Walk the birds several times daily, particularly in the morning, to ensure the birds are finding feed and water.
House Layout—The litter area in layer houses should not be more than 60 cm (24 in) below the slat area. Position lights to eliminate shadows on the litter below the slat area. Position lights to provide the brightest light intensity over the litter or resting areas and the lowest light intensity at the front of the nest boxes. Flocks housed in all-slat houses should also be grown on slat or wire floors.
Nests—Open nest box curtains to encourage nest exploration in young laying flocks. Nest lights can be used to train birds to explore the nests and should be turned on one hour before the house lights are turned on and remain on for one hour after the house lights have been turned on. This will help prevent
overcrowding and smothering inside the nests. False walls that are 1 m (3 ft) in length every 12 m (39 ft) along the line of nest boxes can reduce overcrowding in nests.

วันพุธที่ 19 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2552

Relative Humidity and Socialization

Relative Humidity—Birds are very sensitive to extremes of relative humidity. It is common to see young flocks in floor houses with relative humidity dropping below 30%. This will
cause increased agitation of the chicks and can cause aggressive behavior. Excessive moisture may cause poor litter conditions. Wet litter will be associated with high ammonia levels, poor air quality and enteric diseases. This must be avoided to prevent respiratory problems. Ideally, relative humidity should be in the 40-60% range.

Socialization—It is important to socialize the birds to humans by walking through the chicks daily. It is recommended the birds be walked at two hour intervals. This would give the birds time to relax and settle between walkings. Brighten the house and walk briskly through the house to improve the process of

Perches For Layer

Perches—Perches provide a significant improvement to the growing and laying house environment. In grow, they allow birds to fully develop their leg and flight muscles. Perches in the growing house will habituate jumping behavior which will be important in good nesting behavior. Perches reduce the social stress of the floor by providing safe resting sites. Perches reduce the social pressure in the environment by increasing the space in the house. Piling is a common problem in flocks without access to perches. Place perches on slats where possible to maintain good litter conditions. Distance between perches on A-frame design should be 40 cm (16 in) and at a slope of 45 degree. The length of the perch depends on the bird density (as shown in the table below).

Lighting System For Growing Period

Lighting—Birds should be grown in housing that allows adjustment to light duration and the light intensity. The lighting programs are usually similar to those used for parent stock in cage production, but light intensity may be different. It is important to provide floor grown birds with enough light intensity to allow them to navigate their environment. Week-one light intensity of 20-30 lux (2-3 foot-candles) should be used, dropping down to 15 lux (1.5 foot-candles) by week four and remaining at the level until week 17. At week 17, gradually increase the light intensity, reaching 20-30 lux (2-3 foot-candles) by the time the pullets are transferred to the breeder house. Birds moving into open-sided housing should have higher light intensities of 30-40 lux (3-4 foot-candles) at the time of housing.

Beak Trimming

Beak trimming is not necessary in all management systems,
however, if beak trimming is done, proper procedures should be followed.

The pullets are most successfully beak trimmed at hatch by infrared beak treatment or between 7-10 days of age using a precision cam activated beak trimmer with guide plate
holes of 4.00, 4.37, and 4.75 mm (10/64, 11/64, and 12/64 in). Males are just tipped on their beaks at the same age as the pullets. The proper size hole should be selected to
provide the width of 2 mm between the nostrils and the cauterizing ring. The proper size hole will depend both on size and age of the chicks. Beaks should be re-trimmed at 12-14 weeks of age.
A cherry red color blade has been recommended for proper cautery. However, a better way to measure blade temperature is by use of a pyrometer to keep the blade at approximately 595ฐC (1100ฐF). The use of a line voltage meter and chart available from the Hy-Line website will facilitate maintaining the proper blade temperature at all times. A variation of 38ฐC (100ฐF) is common due to external influences and cannot be detected by the human eye.

The following precautions must be observed at all times:

1. Do not beak-trim sick birds.
2. Do not hurry.
3. Use electrolytes and vitamins (containing vitamin K) in
the water two days before and two days after beak
4. Keep feed at the highest level for several days after
beak trimming. If a coccidiostat is being used in the
feed, supplement it with water soluble coccidiostats
until feed consumption returns to normal.
5. Use only well trained crews for beak trimming.

Mating ratios for parent layer

Male to female ratios depend on the type of breeder cage and the size of the cage colony but as a rule they should follow as closely as possible those ratios used on the floor. The same lighting program used for floor breeders should be used in caged breeder flocks.


Fertility chicks on fresh eggs can be done to identify cages with low fertility. Poor quality roosters should be removed and replaced with reserve roosters.

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