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วันศุกร์ที่ 18 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2552

Stomach of Animals

The stomach stores, dissolves, and partially digests the contents of a meal, then delivers this partially digested food to the small intestine in amounts optimal for maximal digestion and absorption. Parietal cells within gastric glands in the folds of the stomach lumen secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl), which makes gastric juice acidic, with a pH less than 2. During a meal, the rate of HCl production increases markedly—seeing, smelling, tasting, and chewing food sends information through the vagus nerves to the parietal cells, causing them to increase acid production. Stomach distention, hydrogen ion concentration, and peptides send messages through long and short neural reflexes to increase gastrin release, which increases HCl production. On average, the stomach produces 2 liters of HCl daily.

Microscopic View: Gastric Mucosa
The lining of the stomach contains deep collections of cells organized into gastric glands. These gastric glands secrete various substances into the stomach. The openings of the gastric glands into the surface of the stomach are called gastric pits. Mucous cells in the gastric pits secrete mucus. In the deeper part of the gland,
parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid. G cells, which are present predominantly only in the antrum of the stomach, secrete gastrin. ECL cells secrete histamine, and chief cells secrete pepsinogen (an inactive form of the pepsin-digesting enzyme pepsin). Intrinsic factor, needed for the absorption of vitamin B12, is also secreted by the gastric mucosa (most likely the parietal cells).

The next set of digestive glands is in the stomach lining. They produce stomach acid and an enzyme that digests protein. One of the unsolved puzzles of the digestive system is why the acid juice of the stomach does not dissolve the tissue of the stomach itself. In most people, the stomach mucosa is able to resist the juice, although food and other tissues of the body cannot.

2 ความคิดเห็น:

  1. Cambodia: Pig carcasses with PRRS torched 04 Oct 2010
    In Kandal Province pig carcasses were burned after four pigs that were tested were discovered to have been infected with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), also known as blue-ear pig disease.
    The burning of the carcasses took place on Saturday. The pigs were taken away by Muk Kampoul district police on 22 September from a trader who imported the pigs from Vietnam, according to the deputy director of the Department of Animal Health and Production at the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Has Piseth.

    Blue-ear disease discovered
    “We tested four of the 49 pigs and found that they had blue-ear disease. We ordered officials and the police to burn the bodies to prevent the disease from infecting other pigs,” said the deputy director.

    Prime Minister Hun Sen placed a ban, on 4 August, on the importation of pigs from Vietnam and Thailand so that there is no occurrence of the spread of PRRS.



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